Instructions for authors
1. EDITORIAL OUTLINE
Editor Responsibility: The manuscripts are evaluated by the editorial committee with contributions from at least three external reviewers familiar with the subject matter. The authors may suggest names of the possible reviewers. The identity of the reviewers is confidential, unless they choose to disclose their names. The ultimate responsibility for decisions rests with the editorial committee.
Evaluation and Publication Process: The evaluation process takes between 5 to 7 months at a minimum. Once the manuscript has been received and registered, it is sent to external reviewers who evaluate it following procedures set out by the journal. A manuscript can be accepted with or without revisions. In the first case, the manuscript is returned to the author to be corrected and then returned to the editor within a 90 day period, including shipping. The authors must indicate clearly the changes they have made and clearly explain those that they did not heed. Once the corrections have been received, the editorial committee will deliberate and decide if the modifications render the manuscript suitable for publication. The authors will be notified of the acceptance or rejection of their manuscript.
Author Responsibility: Authors are responsible for the ideas and empirical data included in the manuscripts, for the reliability and truthfulness of the information, for the accuracy of quotes and citations, for the rights to publish any material included in the text, and for submitting the manuscript in the required format. A manuscript submitted to the Chungara Journal of Chilean Anthropology must not be published in or presented in the same way to another publication media.
Copyright: The published articles do not necessarily represent the point of view of the Journal. All rights reserved. Neither the whole or part of this Journal may be reproduced or transmitted by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording and retrieval system, without permission by the Editor-in-Chief.
Proofs: These will be sent to authors as third printing tests for correction only of typographical or editing errors. This proof must be sent back to the editor in no less than 48 hours, thus authorizing publication of the manuscript.
Offprint: The authors can purchase offprints of their published manuscripts; however these require a formal written request to the editor and payment for the printing costs up front.
2. OFFICIAL OUTLINE
2.1. Presentation and Manuscript Format
The manuscripts must conform to the following format and configuration: Letter size, with margins 2.5 cm wide. The text must be written with Times New Roman or Garamond font, size 12, double spaced and in line with the left margin (left justification).
2.2. Manuscript Divisions and Pagination
The manuscript must be paginated from the title page through to the tables at the end. It should contain the following sections that begin on separate pages: (1) Title and Título; (2) Abstract-Key words and Resumen- Palabras claves; (3) text-Acknowledgements; (4) Cited References; (5) Notes; (6) List of figures with captions in Spanish and English; (7) Figures; (8) Tables with titles in Spanish and English.
In the electronic version, the title page, abstracts (English and Spanish) with key words (English and Spanish), text, acknowledgements, notes, and figure lists must be in the same file. The tables and figures should be in separate files. The manuscript should not exceed 7,200 words, including all the above mentioned sections.
2.2.1. Presentation Page
(See example of this in the section 2.8 below): On a separate page include title of the manuscript, name of the authors, institutional affiliations and mailing address all in double space format. The name of the manuscript should be concise, informative and descriptive, and must be written in upper case letters, in bold and centered. In the next line, the name of the author(s), separated with commas, centered, using one or more asterisks to mark institutional affiliations mailing addresses. The next line must state “DO NOT QUOTE WITHOUT PERMISSION OF THE AUTHOR(S)”, in uppercase letters and centered. Next, place institutional affiliations and mailing addresses along the left margin following the asterisk order.
On a new page present the abstract of the manuscript which should clearly represent the contents of the manuscript and the English version should be presented first if the text is in English and followed by the Spanish abstract (or visa versa if the main text is in Spanish). The words “abstract” should not be used - no subtitle is to be used here. This must not exceed 200 words. The abstract must be followed by key words. The key words are descriptions of the manuscript contents.
2.2.3. Text: Start a new page. Start without the word Introduction.
2.2.4. Acknowledgements: should be placed at the end of the text, without starting a new page, before the cited references. This must be left justified, in italicized letters, followed by a colon that is not italicized (Acknowledgements: …). Here is where you mention all the institutions and people that supported, economically, intellectually and technically the preparation of the manuscript. It is recommended that you include the evaluators whether they remained anonymous or not.
2.2.5. References Cited: Start a new page. References cited are placed immediately after the Acknowledgements (see 2.4).
2.2.6. Notes: Start a new page (see 2.5).
2.2.7. List of figures and figures: In the paper version, the list of figures goes after the notes, starting on a new page. In the electronic version, the figures must not be included in the main manuscript Word file. Figures must be placed in a separate file. It is required that the text of the figures is in both English and Spanish, with the translation placed below the language used for the main text (see 2.6).
2.2.8. Tables and their respective titles: Start a new page. Tables must not be included in the main manuscript Word file. Tables must be included in a separate file. The design of the tables must be simple, with limited number of columns, to facilitate the printing. It is required that the text of the tables is in both English and Spanish, with the translation placed below the language used for the main text (see 2.7).
2.3. Text Elements
2.3.1. Titles: The main title is the name of the manuscript and it is to be placed on the presentation page, with size 12 fonts for letters, capitalized, in bold and centered. Others are primary, secondary and tertiary subtitles. The primary subtitle must be in 12 font, in title case (capital letters for the first letters of main words), with bold letters, centered, without leaving an extra line between the subtitle and the text which follows. The secondary subtitles must be in 12 font, in a sentence format, with bold letters, justified left and without leaving an extra line. The tertiary subtitles are written with 12 font, in a sentence format, without bold letters, italicized, justified left and without leaving an extra line.
2.3.2. Use of italicized letters: Apart from the tertiary subtitles the italicized letters are only used for scientific names and words different from the original language of the manuscript. Latin expressions of common usage such as, et al., ca, v. gr., sensu, locus, loci, etc must not be used with italicized letters. Proper pronouns and personal titles should not be italicized either, even when these are in a different language from the manuscript.
2.3.3. Use of Capital/Lower case letters: An initial capital letter is used for proper pronouns, mountains, rivers, countries, specific archeological and geographic areas. (Examples: Andes, Mesoamerica, Andean South Central area, Central Andes, Amazons). Also written with a capital letter is the initial name of a phase, period, culture, type, etc. Example: San Miguel phase, Archaic period, Chinchorro culture, Polished Black ceramics. Words such as phase, period, and culture should follow with lower case letters. Write in lower case letters directional, topographic and general geographic terms (e.g. southeast, north coast of Peru, river Lluta, valley of Elqui). The directional terms are only in capital letters when they are abbreviated (e.g. NE, S, W). For Spanish, in the case of oeste or west, the abbreviation should be written with the letter “W” so as not to be confused with the number zero, 0.
2.3.4. Abbreviations: Common abbreviations are written the following way “for example” e.g., years before and after Christ and before the present BC, AD and BP. For BP “present” refers precisely to AD 1950. For texts in Spanish, use a.C., d.C. and a.p. respectively.
2.3.5. Hyphens: Are not used in compound words (e.g. Preceramic, Post Classic, Precolumbian, infrastructure, intrasite, intersite, interaction, sociocultural, agropastorial, etc.).
2.3.7. Numbers: Cardinal numbers are expressed with words if the number is between zero and nine (e.g. three ceramic fragments, eight sites). For numbers above nine cardinal numbers should be used (e.g. 53 lithics, 14 sites), however, these will be written out when they are found at the beginning of a sentence (e.g. “Ten projectile points were found…”). The numbers with more than three digits have a comma (e.g. 3,200 AD, 1,450 masl (meters above sea level) or msnm (metros sobre el nivel del mar in Spanish)). The ordinal numbers are always written with words (e.g. first, tenth, hundredth), except in the case of centuries (e.g. IV century). It is recommended that official nomenclature for archeological sites be followed (e.g. Az–14; 02-Tu-001).
2.3.8. Dates: Dates are written in the following ways: 320 years; August 7, 1953; Century III, fourth millennium, during the decade of 1950s, during the fifties (not during the 50s, nor the decade of the 50s). Radiocarbon or thermoluminescence dates published for the first time must follow the rules given below. For other dates a reference should be given for where they are published. Remember that in English, AD is placed before the number (AD 1900), and BC or BP after the number (1900 BC or 1900 BP), except when reporting calibrated radiocarbon or thermoluminescence dates, since these abreviations all follow the number (see below).
Radiocarbon dates that are not calibrated are sited directly and expressed in years before present (“BP” in English or “a.p.” in Spanish). Do not convert them to BC/AD. Use the following order and separate the information with commas: (1) absolute date, (2) sigma = 1s, (3) laboratory number, (4) material dated, (5) add the value of d13C if it is available.
English: 3,900±100 BP, Beta-115430, charcoal, d13C = -29.3 ‰
Spanish: 3.900±100 a.p., Beta-115430, carbon, d13C = -29,3 ‰
English: 9,510±70 BP, Beta-139632, Bone collagen, d13C = -19.3 ‰
Spanish: 9.510±70 a.p., Beta-139632, colágeno de hueso, d13C = -19,3 ‰
The calibrated radiocarbon date always should be identified as such. They should be expressed as a range(s) of calendar dates using the conventions “Cal AD” or “Cal BC” or in Spanish as “cal. a.C.” or “cal. d.C.” The type of calibration should be identified and if 1 or 2 sigmas were used. One should include more calendar age ranges when available and the probabilities give to each.
English: 1953-1975 Cal AD (p = 0.95) and 1943-1999 Cal AD (p = 0.95) (2 sigma calibration with Program XX [program name] from XX [citation]).
Spanish: 1953-1975 cal. d.C. (p = 0,95) y 1943-1999 cal. d.C. (p = 0,95) (calibrados a 2 sigmas con el programa XX [nombre programa] de XX [cita]).
The TL dates should be given calendar dates, followed by sigma, and in parentheses the name of the laboratory and the laboratory number assigned to the sample.
English example: 1,350 ± 80 AD (UCTL 117).
Spanish example: 1.350 ± 80 d.C. (UCTL 117).
If the manuscript includes more than three radiocarbon dates (calibrated or not calibrated) or more than 3 thermoluminescence dates published for the first time, these should be placed in a table.
2.3.9. Measures: Measurements must be expressed in Arabic or European numerals, with an abbreviated metric system, without a period and leaving a space between the number and the abbreviation (e.g. mm; 20 cm; 5 m; 13 km; 32 ha; 8 m2; 2 kg; 400 g. Note exception: 5 liters - liters is spelled out to avoid confusion between the number 1 and the letter l). Exceptions would include a general expression such as “some meters away” at the beginning of a sentence or another example would be “Eight miles to the south...”.
2.3.10. Quotations: Textual quotes of less than three lines are added to the paragraph and enclosed in double quotation marks. Single quotation marks are used only to indicate a quote inside another or if there are original quotations marks inside the quoted text. At the end of the quote indicate within parentheses: last name of the author/ year of publication/colon/page(s).
Example: The sites with these characteristics have been defined as “fortified villages” (Guevara et al. 1988:23) with respect to their architectural characteristics.
Quotes of three or more lines are separated from the text block, indented on the next line, and without quotation marks. At the end of the quote use the same method for citation as given for shorter quotes above.
The authors describe the site in the following manner:
Se trata de un poblado localizado en la parte alta de la ladera del cerro. La integran 106 estructuras de piedra emplazadas sobre plataformas, que incluyen estructuras de almacenaje y habitacionales. El poblado se encuentra rodeado por un muro perimetral doble. Desde este emplazamiento estratégico es posible tener completa visibilidad del valle (Guevara et al. 1988:24-25).
2.3.11. Citations in the text: Include last name(s) of the author(s) and the year (no comma between the last name and the year). Do not use the expressions Op. cit o Ibid.
(Platt 1997) or Rostworowski (1986)
(Durston and Hidalgo 1999) or Bittmann and Munizaga (1984)
Three or more Authors:
(Rothhammer et al. 1984) or Arriaza et al. (1986)
The citations in the text with the expression “et al.” must be included in the section Cited References with the initial of the first name of each author included. When the same person is first author in more than one published article in the same year, the co-authors must be mentioned (e.g. Williams, Reyes and Capriles 2002; Williams, Rodríguez and Aute 2002).
Two or more references of the same author(s) in the same year:
(Jones and Brown 1972a, 1972b; Wilson 1973c)
When one, or two or even more authors have publications in the same year, quoted in the text, these are distinguished with the letters a, b, c, etc.
Example: for Gonzales, Segovia and Aranguiz with two publications in 1999, the correct reference would be (Gonzalez et al. 1999a and b). The authors referred to as “et al.” must be added in the Cited References section.
Various quoted authors or references to the same author:
(Dillehay 1998; Lynch 1986; Meggers 1985; Munizaga 1986; Rivera 1973, 1975, 1987)
Two authors with the same last name and publication year:
(L. Núñez 1986; P. Núñez 1986) or L. Núñez (1986) and P. Núñez (1986)
Two authors with the same last name but different publication years:
(Saavedra 1988; Saavedra 1989) or Saavedra (1988) Saavedra (1989)
Government Agency, company, or similar entity as an author:
(Public Ministry [MOP] 1975)
In subsequent quotes only use the abbreviation (MOP 1975) or MOP (1975).
Reference with page(s) quote(s), tables or figures:
It will be written the following way: last name of the author/year/colon/page or table or figure. Notice that between the date and the page, figure or table there are no spaces.
Example: (Mulvany 1994:190); Villagrán y Castro (1999:Table 3); Arriaza (1995:Plate 1)
When more than one page, table or figure are referred to, these are separated from each other with a comma or with hyphens when they are correlative (e.g. Nielsen 1997:343-345) and with a comma when they are discontinuous pages (e.g. Hourani 1990:69, 89-91). All the digits of the pages must be written out (e.g. 343-345, not 343-5).
Series of various volumes:
The number of the volume is written with Roman or Arabic/European numerals according to the original and without spaces.
Examples: (Vargas 1997;I:48;II:65) or Vargas (1997;I:48;II:65)
(Ramírez 1999:2:32) or Ramírez (1999:2:32)
Book or Journal Article:
Must indicate the printing date for the reference. Do not use “in press” in the quote of the text.
(Guevara 1995) or Guevara (1995)
Book or Article in the press:
Must indicate some date of reference (date of submission for instance or date the manuscript was finalized). Do not use “in press” in the citation within the text.
(Guevara 2006) or Guevara (2006)
Former, reedited or reprinted editions:
(Cobo 1954 ) or Cobo (1954 )
(Bowman 1941:190 ) or Bowman (1941:190 )
Personal communication without publication
(Juan Pérez personal communication 1986) o Juan Pérez personal communication (1986)
Personal communications do not appear in Cited References section. Personal communications must be just that and not a quote of a personal communication published in another media or journal.
2.4. References Cited
The references must be complete and with 1.5 line spacing. Only include references cited in the text, in the notes, in the tables and in the titles of the figures. All the references cited in the text must appear in the list of cited references. All the cited references should be listed alphabetically and chronologically according to the author’s last name.
References are to be written the following way: the first letter of the last name of the author (in capital letters) / comma/ first name initial with capitol letter/ period. In the next line the publication year is written followed by the title, from there the other characteristics will vary according to whether the reference is in a journal, book, chapter in a book, etc.
- All titles of books, journals, published proceedings, memoirs, theses or dissertations receive italicized letters and title case (capital letters for the first letters of main words) in both Spanish and English.
- All the titles or articles in journals or proceedings, or chapters in books, are without italicized letters and only the first word should have a capital letter, in English or Spanish.
- The titles of the manuscripts are without italicized letters and are to be written in sentence format, in Spanish or English.
- The numbers of the pages will be indicated only for articles in journals, chapters in books and articles in conference proceedings.
2.4.1. Book reference:
Title in italicized letters with title case (capital letters for the first letters of main words)/period/ number of the edition/ comma/ publisher/comma/ city of publication. Do not write the number of pages for the book or any other information.
Moseley, M. 1992. The Incas and their Ancestors. The Archaeology of Peru. Thames and Hudson, London.
Clark, G. 1977. World Prehistory in New Perspective. Third edition, Cambridge University Press Cambridge.
2.4.2. Edited Book:
Title in italicized letters and title case (capital letters for the first letters of main words)/period/ publisher/comma/ city of publication.
Cremonte, M.A. (comp.) 1998. Los Desarrollos Locales y sus Territorios. National University of Jujuy, Jujuy.
Dillehay, T. and D. Meltzer (eds.) 1991. The First Americans: Search and Research. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
2.4.3. Translated article or book:
If it is an article: title of the article without italicized letters written as a sentence/period/ translated by/ name of the translator (initial, period, last name)/period/ name of the journal where the translation appears in italicized letters/ number or volume/colon/pages.
If it is a Book: title in italicized letters with title case (capital letters for the first letters of main words)/period / Translated by/ name of the translator (Initial, period, last name)/period/ publisher/comma/ city of publication.
Troll, C. 1958 . Las culturas superiores andinas y el medio ambiente geográfico. Translated by C. Nicholson. Revista del Instituto de Geografía 5:3-49.
Bird, J. 1988 . Excavaciones en el Norte de Chile. Translated by M. Rivera. Ediciones Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica.
2.4.4. Chapter in Book: Title of the chapter without italicized letters written in sentence format/ period/ In/ title of the book in italicized letters with sentence format/comma/ edited by/ names of the authors or editors of the book (initial, period, last name)/comma/ pp. / pages of the chapter/period/ Publisher/comma/ city of publication.
Arriaza, B., A. Aufderheide and I. Muñoz 1999. Análisis antropológico físico de Acha 2. In Acha 2 y los Orígenes del Poblamiento Humano en Arica, edited by I. Muñoz, B. Arriaza and A. Aufderheide, pp. 47-64. Ediciones Universidad de Tarapacá, Santiago.
van Kessel, J. 1976. La pictografía rupestre como imagen votiva (un intento de interpretación antropológica). In Homenaje al Dr. Gustavo Le Paige, S.J., edited by H. Niemeyer, pp. 227-244. Universidad del Norte, Antofagasta.
Note that “van Kessel” is alphabetized under the letter “v” in both the text and the list of cited references (van Kessel 1976). Analogously the same applies to hyphenated last names.
2.4.5. Article in Journal: The title of the article in sentence format, without italicized letters/period/ name of the Journal in italicized letters and title case (capital letters for the first letters of main words)/ number or volume/colon/pages (without a space after the colon and the pages). If the magazine has a system of numeration of volumes with correlative pages, it is not necessary to indicate the number, only the volume.
Heusser, C.J. 1984. Late glacial-Holocene climate of the lake district of Chile. Quaternary Research 22:77-90.
Olivera, D. 1997. La importancia del recurso Camelidae en la Puna de Atacama entre los 10.000 y 500 años a.p. Estudios Atacameños 14:29-41.
2.4.6. Articles in Conference Proceedings, Seminars, Symposia in Periodicals:
Title of the article without italicized letters written in sentence format/period/ title of the proceedings without italicized letters and title case (capital letters for the first letters of main words)/ name of the periodical publication en italicized letters/ number of the volume /colon/pages/ period.
Escola, P.S. 2004. La expeditividad y el registro arqueológico. Actas XV Congreso de Arqueología Chilena Chungara Revista de Antropología Chilena Tomo 1, pp. 49-60.
2.4.7. Articles in Conference Proceedings, Seminars, Symposia:
Title of the article without italicized letters written in sentence format/period/ title of the proceedings italicized and capitalized/ number of volume/comma/ pp./ pages/period/ Publisher/comma/ city of publication.
Munizaga, J.R. 1984. Poblaciones Atacameñas: aspectos morfológicos. Actas Simposio Culturas Atacameñas XLIV Congreso Internacional de Americanistas, pp. 71-79. Universidad del Norte, Antofagasta.
2.4.8. Presentation in a conference (unpublished): Title of the presentation in sentence format and not italicized/period/ Presented in/ name of the conference or symposium in italics and in title case (capital letters for the first letters of main words)/comma/ city.
Tarragó, M. 1999. Cerámica y cestería arqueológica del valle de Yocavil. Una aproximación a partir de improntas. Ponencia presentada en XIII Congreso Nacional de Arqueología Argentina, Córdoba.
2.4.9. Manuscript in press (book or article): Use book or article format. The date refers to the date the manuscript was submitted for review.
Soto, J. 2001. Excavaciones en la cueva Río Azul. Antropología, in press.
Ubelaker, D.H. 1999. Temporal trends in Old World patterns of morbidity. In Bioantropología, Cultura y Conservación de Restos Humanos Antiguos, edited by C.M. Santoro and B.T. Arriaza. Ediciones Universidad de Tarapacá, Santiago, in press.
2.4.10. Draft Manuscript: Title of the manuscript without italicized letters and written as a sentence/period/ manuscript in possession of the author(s).
Verano, J. 1994. Commingled human remains from middle preceramic residential sites in the upper Zana valley, northern Peru. Manuscript in possession of the author.
2.4.11. Memoirs and seminars, theses or dissertations:
For memoirs, seminars, theses and dissertations, use the following format: title in italicized letters in and title case (capital letters for the first letters of main words)/period/ indication of what it is/comma/ Department/comma/ University/comma/ city.
Cassman, V. 1997. A Reconsideration of Prehistoric Ethnicity and Status in Northern Chile: The Textile Evidence. Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe.
Castro, V. 1997. Huacca Muchay. Evangelización y Religión Andina en Charcas, Atacama La Baja. Masters Thesis in History and Ethnohistory, Department of Historical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago.
For US seminaries, thesis or dissertation in microfilm format use the following format:
Dillehay, T.D. 1976. Competition and Cooperation in the Prehispanic Multi–Ethnic System in the Central Andes. Doctoral Dissertation, the University of Texas, Austin. University Microfilm, Ann Arbor.
Aldunate, C. and V. Castro 1981. Las Chullpa de Toconce y su Relación con el Poblamiento Altiplánico del Loa Superior. Período Tardío. Thesis for Philosophy Degree with Prehistoric and Archeological Mention, Sociological and anthropological sciences department, Chile University, Santiago, Kultrun Editions.
2.4.12. Old Editions and/or those edited by someone: Must provide the year of the original editions in brackets after the reprinting date. Title in italicized letters and title case (capital letters for the first letters of main words)/period/ publisher/comma / place. If the book was edited by someone, this name is added after the title: title in italicized letters and title case (capital letters for the first letters of main words)/comma/ edited by/ name(s) (initial/period/ last name)/period.
Bertonio, L. 1984 . Vocabulario de la Lengua Aymara. Ceres Editions, Cochabamba.
Guaman Poma de Ayala, F. 1980 . El Primer Nueva Crónica y Buen Gobierno, edited by J. Murra and R. Adorno. Editorial Siglo Veintiuno, México.
Focacci, G. 1995 . Estudio sobre la cerámica de una tumba encistada Playa Miller. Boletín Museo Regional de Arica 1:1-13. Reedited by L. Álvarez.
Childe, V.G. 1980 . Los Orígenes de la Civilización. Economic Culture, Mexico.
In this last case, the original year is from the first edition of Childe’s book in Spanish, which is the version that is cited, even though the first edition was written in English in 1936.
2.4.13. Electronic Articles
Last name of the author, initial of first name. Title of the document or archive followed by (day and month of the website was last checked). URL italicized followed by the date it was first accessed without italicized letters.
Barretto, M. 1998. Paradigmas Actuales de la Museología. (3 junio). http://www.naya.org.ar/articulos/museologia01.htm (1 abril 1999).
Vitry, C. 1998. Sitios arqueológicos de alta montaña, un patrimonio amenazado. 1er Congreso Virtual de Antropología y Arqueología. (Octubre). ftp://ftp.naya.org.ar/congreso/ponencia3-9.txt, (1 abril 1999).
Notes must be written like a primary subtitle. The notes begin on a new page, following the cited references. Notes should be used sparingly and only to provide essential information that was not included in the main text, to avoid breaking the coherency of the argument with specific details. The notes must be numbered with Arabic/European characters, in Times New Roman or Garamond in font size 10.
2.6. Figures and List of Figures:
Figures include maps, photos, pictures, graphics, and illustrations of artifacts. In the text they are indicated with the word figure (no abbreviation) and are numbered with Arabic/European characters strictly in the sequential order mentioned in the text.
List of figures:
In a page apart, a list with the title of each figure must be included. The title must be brief and contain only essential information. Include references and authorship of the figures in case they do not belong to the authors, or if they are taken from another source.
All the figures must be original and of high quality. Electronic Versions are accepted if they have been professionally produced. The mailing of figures in electronic version will be used for the printing of the publication; however hard copies are also required (original and the copy you must send).
In the case of photos, conventional photos in paper are required – color or black and white. Digital photos are only used if they are of high quality if they are printed on photographic paper with high resolution and optimum contrast. Photocopies are not accepted, nor a scan of low contrast and resolution.
In the case of drawings of maps, graphics, or illustrations of artifacts, a digital design is preferred and must be printed on high resolution paper. These must be professionally produced and they are only accepted when produced in or compatible with the following computer programs: Corel Draw, Macromedia Freehand, Adobe Photoshop and Adobe illustrator. Scanned figures must be saved at a high resolution of 300 dpi, in TIF, JPG or GIF formats. Only black and white drawings are accepted, but in special cases color drawings may be accepted.
The maximum dimension of a figure must not exceed letter size paper (28 x 22 cm). Please note that the size of the majority of the figures is reduced in the printing process. Complex figures with small letters will not result in a visually clear finished product. The letters in the figures must be large enough and “clean” to be readable after their reduction. Avoid downloading pictures with much text. In maps, provide the symbol for north and a scale. A scale should be included in illustrations of artifacts as well. Figures may not include a title (titles go in the list of figures), however, all symbols used in the figures must be explained inside the figure. Titles for the figures must be in both English and Spanish with the translation following the title of the language used in the body of the text.
On the reverse of the originals must be written, without damaging the figure, the name of the author, title of the manuscript and the number of the figure.
The tables contain alphanumeric information. These are sequentially numbered in the order of their appearance in the text. Avoid the use of large and complicated tables. A table of 10 to 12 columns must be printed in landscape format. Do not insert tables in the text. These must be in separate Word files. The title of a table goes above each table. It is required that table titles be in both English and Spanish with the translation following the title of the language used in the body of the text.
2.8. Manuscript format example
THE TEST OF COMPETING MODELS FOR THEPREHISTORIC PEOPLING OF THE AZAPA VALLEY, NORTHERN CHILE, USING MATRIX CORRELATIONS
MODELOS ALTERNATIVOS PARA EXPLICAR EL POBLAMIENTO PREHISTÓRICO DEL VALLE DE AZAPA, NORTE DE CHILE, MEDIANTE ANÁLISIS DE CORRELACIÓN DE MATRICES
Richard C. Sutter1
DO NOT QUOTE WITHOUT PERMISSION OF THE AUTHOR
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This study reports biodistances from nonmetric dental traits for eleven mortuary samples -an Andean Paleoindian sample, a Tiwanaku sample, and nine from the Azapa Valley to test three models for the prehistoric population dynamics of the Azapa Valley, Chile, using matrix correlation analysis of hypothetical design matrices. These models include: (1) Tiwanaku colonization during the Middle Period, (2) simple gene flow over time, and (3) a modified gene flow model with coastal groups demonstrating genetic continuity while diverging from valley populations. The Tiwanaku sample demonstrates significant biodistances with five of the nine Azapa Valley samples, and large but nonsignificant differences with all but the late Desarrollo Regional Gentilar sample from Azapa-8. Inland samples from the Azapa Valley generally become more similar to the Tiwanaku sample through time suggesting gene flow, while coastal samples of the region demonstrate a degree of epigenetic coherence. The results of Mantel tests for each of the three design matrices indicates that the Tiwanaku and simple gene flow models produce nonsignificant and low correlations with the biodistance matrix while the gene flow with coastal divergence model produces significant results. The implications of these results are discussed.
Key words: Biodistance analysis, skeletal remains, matrix correlation.
En este trabajo se analizan distancias biológicas obtenidas de rasgos no-métricos dentales extraídas de once muestras mortuorias -una muestra de paleoindios andinos, otra de Tiwanaku y nueve del valle de Azapa- para poner a prueba tres modelos que expliquen las dinámicas prehistóricas poblacionales en el valle de Azapa, Chile, mediante análisis de correlación de matrices hipotéticas. Estos modelos incluyen: (1) la colonización durante el período Medio por los Tiwanaku, (2) flujo genético a través del tiempo, (3) y un modelo de flujo genético donde los grupos costeros muestran continuidad genética mientras divergen de poblaciones del valle, las cuales reciben flujo genético del altiplano. La muestra de Tiwanaku está separada por distancias biológicas significativas con cinco de las nueve muestras del valle de Azapa, y distancias grandes pero no significativas con las demás muestras, exceptuando la muestra Gentilar del desarrollo regional tardío de Azapa-8. Las muestras del valle se vuelven más similares a la muestra de Tiwanaku a través del tiempo, lo que sugiere flujo genético, mientras que las muestras costeras manifiestan una coherencia epigenética. Los resultados de la prueba de Mantel para cada uno de los tres modelos indica que los modelos de colonización tiwanakoide y de flujo genético no producen resultados significativos, mientras que el modelo de flujo genético con divergencia costera sí lo hace. Se discuten las consecuencias de estos resultados en relación con publicaciones anteriores.
Palabras claves: análisis de distancias biológicas, restos esqueletales, análisis de correlación de matrices.
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List of figures (text in English and Spanish)
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List of tables (text in English and Spanish)