INCA RELATIONS AND EXPANSION STRATEGIES IN NORTH-EAST ARGENTINA: GRAPHIC MARKERS AND MATERIAL INDICATORS IN THE HIGH GORGES OF THE CALCHAQUI VALLEY
RELACIONES Y ESTRATEGIAS DE EXPANSIÓN INCA EN EL NOROESTE ARGENTINO: MARCADORES GRÁFICOS E INDICADORES MATERIALES EN LAS QUEBRADAS ALTAS DEL VALLE CALCHAQUÍ
Verónica Isabel Williams and María Cecilia Castellanos
It has been suggested that, depending on local, environmental, and demographic conditions, the Inca state implemented diverse strategies of landscape appropriation in the middle Calchaqui Valley, Northwest Argentina..One of the direct strategies consisted in the intervention of agricultural infrastructure in areas with no evidence of either local habitational or pukara- style defensive settlements, which were very popular in the study area during the Regional Development Period (RDP) or Late Intermediate Period (LIP) and which could have become true Inca productive enclaves. Another strategy, of a more symbolic character, suggests that the Inca state appropriated places with a previous history, and that the pukaras acted as territorial milestones associated to a way of occupying the space, interweaving numerous practices and acting as referents of collective memory. In this article, we discuss the possibility that the strategies and ritual ceremonies were used as an expression of the territorial demarcation and annexation to the Inca policy in agricultural areas of the valleys and high gorges of Calchaqui, taking into account the concept of Capacocha.